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Although Photography was invented in the early 19th century, the principle behind the camera was known long before that. Artists used the Camera Obscura to project images for drawing as early as the 13th century; although an Arabian manuscript from the 10th century describes the process that makes the camera obscura, and early photography, work.

The Camera Obscura (top left); a projection from a Camera Obscura (top right) and four drawings by Canaletto (1697 -1768) made with a Camera Obscura.

Technical advancements in Photography began slowly but then rapidly advanced from the early 19th century through the mid 20th century (see Traditional Photography page). By the late 20th century, digital photography was introduced and quickly began replacing film camera use.

Quarter plate daguerreotype attributed to Nicholas H. Shepherd, based on the recollections of Gibson W. Harris, a law student in Lincoln's office from 1845 to 1847; first authenticated image of Abraham Lincoln; 1846 or 1847

Above images are from Wikipedia

Some sites about Photography in general:
Leave a Legacy Today: History of Photography and Videography
Media Collage: Photography
Shu Tha: Understanding Photo Genres

Some sites that list Photographers of multiple types and genres:
Famous Photographers
Twisted Sifter: Top 75 Pictures of the Day
Digital Camera World: 55 Best Photographers of All Time
Professional Photographer: 19 Most Influential Female Photographers